Who requires Lung Transplant
Due to elevated consumption of tobacco and increased smoking habits, lung diseases are becoming common and severe day by day. The degrading lungs’ health in patients further leads to more and more cases requiring lung transplantation procedure. But it is not that easy to undergo a lung transplantation procedure. Lung transplantation, being a serious medical treatment, is provided to only those who are in extreme need of this surgical treatment. Some of the necessary conditions to undergo a lung transplant surgery are as listed below -
- Patients suffering from End Stage Pulmonary Disease for a considerable period of time
- Patients who have limited life expectancy of few years only if not provided with lung transplantation surgery
- No other treatment other than lung transplant is beneficial to improve patient’s health
- Lung transplant is the only option to help patient survive
A large number of medical tests and assessments are conducted before going for the final lung transplant surgery as these tests play a vital role during and even after the surgical process. These tests are also beneficial in determining the post-transplant complications. Some of the major tests conducted before heading for the lung transplant surgery are listed below -
- Blood typing: - Blood typing tests are performed to ensure a potential lung donor for the patient. A patient can receive lung only from such a donor who has similar antigens as theirs. Blood mismatching can trigger patient’s immune system strongly leading to the rejection of transplanted lung.
- Pulmonary function tests :- These tests are conducted majorly to diagnose asthma, breathing problems, allergies and other similar health concerns related to the pulmonary system in the patient.
- Tissue typing :- Tissue typing is essential to avoid transplant rejection in the patient and must be done with extreme care and under proper supervision.
- Imaging tests: - Imaging tests of the chest area, mainly the x-rays and CT scan, are conducted to verify the size of lungs along with chest cavity and hence ensure smooth surgery during the lung transplant process.
- Laboratory tests :- Major laboratory tests include blood tests meant for counting RBCs, WBCs, platelets, etc., tests for any viral or bacterial diseases and urine tests.
- Heart tests :-Various heart tests, such as ECG, Echocardiogram, Electrocardiogram, Cardiac Catheterization, etc. are done to ensure that the patient has a healthy cardiovascular system that can bear the complications and stress that comes with the transplant.
- Bone mineral density :- Bone mineral density test is conducted to ensure the amount of bone mineral in bone tissues of the patient so that he or she can bear the surgery easily and can recover quickly.
- General Health Exam: -. This exam involves measuring blood pressure, sugar levels, etc. along with complete blood cancer screening tests.
- Nutrition counseling: - Nutrition counseling is essential and provided to the patient and his or her family members prior to surgery so as to ensure proper nutrition for the patient.
- Psychological evaluation: - Patient is required to undergo psychological evaluation so that he or she can comprehend the implications of the transplant and remains ready to handle the stress.
- Addiction counseling: - Here the patients are counseled about the severe ill-effects of smoking on their transplant and future life.