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About Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone marrow is a soft, spongy, fatty tissue which is present in the bones and is responsible the production of the blood cells. Bone marrow produces the following parts of the blood:

  • The red blood cells which carry oxygen and nutrients to various parts of the body
  • The white blood cells which help to fight infection
  • Platelets which help in formation of clots

The marrow contains the immature blood-forming stem cells called the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) which have the potential to mature into more bone marrow cells or any different type of blood cells. The HSCs are responsible for the creation of new blood cells throughout a person’s lifespan.
 
Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a procedure where chemotherapy-induced damaged blood-forming cells in the bone marrow are replaced with healthy bone marrow. On the other hand, peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSC) replaces blood-forming cells which have been destroyed by cancer treatment. In PBSC, immature blood cells in the circulating blood, which are similar to those present in the bone marrow, are given to the patient after treatment. This helps the bone marrow to recover and continue to produce healthy blood cells.

Indications for a Bone Marrow Transplant
When a person’s marrow is unable to function normally due to chronic infections, cancer treatments or any disease, a bone marrow transplant becomes necessary. Indications for the transplant procedure include:

Aplastic Anemia - A disorder where the bone marrow stops creating new blood cells.
Cancers- which affect the marrow such as lymphoma, myelodysplasia, leukemia and multiple myelomas damage to the bone marrow due to chemotherapy.
Congenital Neutropenia -  An inherited disorder which causes recurring infections
Sickle Cell Anemia -  An inherited disorder that causes misshapen red blood cells
Thalassemia -  An inherited blood disorder in which the body creates an abnormal form of hemoglobin that is an integral part of the red blood cells.

Contra Indications for a Bone Marrow Transplant
Although bone marrow transplant can be done in patient’s up to 75 years old, but there are certain contraindications that suggest against the surgery, such as: - 

  • Major Liver Ailments
  • Significant Kidney Diseases
  • Severe Lung, Cardiac or Vascular Diseases
  • Uncontrolled Infections
  • Disabling Psychosis.

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